Thursday, May 5, 2016

Bootstrapping by resampling with replacement

Bootstrapping is a statistical resampling method that consists of randomly sampling a dataset with replacement. This technique enables data scientists to estimate the sampling distribution of a wide variety of probability distributions.

Background
One key objective of bootstrapping is to compute the accuracy of any statistic such as mean, standard deviation, median, mode or error. These statistics, s are known as estimators of an approximate distribution. The most common approximate distribution is known as the empirical distribution function. The special case of the observations are independent and evenly distributed, the empirical or approximate distribution can be estimated through resampling.
The following diagram captures the essence of bootstrapping by resampling.


Each of the B bootstrap samples has the same number of observations or data points as the original dataset from which the samples are created. Once the samples are created, a statistical function s such as mean, mode, median or standard deviation is computed for each sample.
The standard deviation for the B statistics should be similar to the standard deviation of the original dataset.

Implementation in Scala
The purpose of this post is to illustrate some basic properties of bootstrapped sampling
  • Profile of the distribution of statistics s for a given probability distribution
  • Comparison of the standard deviation of the statistics s with the standard deviation of the original dataset

Let's implement a bootstrap by resampling in Scala, starting with a class Bootstrap.

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class Bootstrap(
    numSamples: Int = 1000,
    s: Vector[Double] => Double,
    inputDistribution: Vector[Double],
    randomizer: Random
) {

  lazy val bootstrappedReplicates: Array[Double] =
    ( 0 until numSamples )./:( new mutable.ArrayBuffer[Double] )(
      ( buf, _ ) => buf += createBootstrapSample
    ).toArray

  def createBootstrapSample: Double {}

  lazy val mean = bootstrappedReplicates.reduce( _ + _ )/numSamples

  def error: Double = {}
}

The class Bootstrap is instantiated with a predefine number of samples, numSamples (line 2), a statistic function s (line 3), a dataset generated by a given distribution inputDistribution (line 4) and a randomizer (line 5).
The computation of the bootstrap replicates, bootstrappedReplicates is central to resampling (lines 8 - 11). As described in the introduction, a replicate, s is computed from a sample of the original data set with the method createBootstrapSample (line 10).

Let's implement the method createBootstrapSample.

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def createBootstrapSample: Double =
    s(
      ( 0 until inputDistribution.size )./:( new mutable.ArrayBuffer[Double] )(
        ( buf, _ ) => {
          randomizer.setSeed( randomizer.nextLong )
          val randomValueIndex = randomizer.nextInt( inputDistribution.size )
          buf += inputDistribution( randomValueIndex )
        }
      ).toVector
    )

The method createBootstrapSample
- Samples the original dataset using a uniform random function (line 6)
- Applies the statistic function s to this sample dataset (line 1 & 11)

The last step consists of computing the error (deviation) on the bootstrap replicates

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  def error: Double = {
    val sumOfSquaredDiff = bootstrappedReplicates.reduce(
      (s1: Double, s2: Double) =>
          (s1 - mean) (s1 - mean) +  (s2 - mean)*(s2 - mean)
   )

    Math.sqrt(sumOfSquaredDiff / (numSamples - 1))
  }


Evaluation
The first evaluation consists of comparing the distribution of replicates with the original distribution. To this purpose, we generate an input dataset using
  • Normal distribution
  • LogNormal distribution
Let's create a method, bootstrapEvaluation to compare the distribution of the bootstrap replicates with the dataset from which the bootstrap samples are generated.

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def bootstrapEvaluation( 
     dist: RealDistribution, 
     random: Random, 
     gen: (Double, Double) 
): (Double, Double) = {

    val inputDistribution = (0 until 5000)./:(new ArrayBuffer[(Double, Double)])
     (
       ( buf, _ ) => {
          val x = gen._1 * random.nextDouble - gen._2
          buf += ( ( x, dist.density( x ) ) )
      }
    ).toVector

    val mean = (x: Vector[Double]) => x.sum/x.length
    val bootstrap = new Bootstrap(
        numReplicates,
        mean, 
        inputDistribution.map( _._2 ), 
        new Random( System.currentTimeMillis)
    )

    val meanS = bootstrap.bootstrappedReplicates.sum / 
          bootstrap.bootstrappedReplicates.size
    val sProb = bootstrap.bootstrappedReplicates.map(_ - meanS)
         // .. plotting histogram of distribution sProb
    (bootstrap.mean, bootstrap.error)
  }

We are using the normal and log normal probability density function defined in the Apache Commons Math Java library. These probability density functions are defined in the org.apache.commons.math3.distribution package.
The comparative method bootstrapEvaluation has the following argument:
  • dist: A probability density function used to generate the dataset upon which sampling is performed (line 2).
  • random: A random number generator (line 3)
  • gen: A pair of parameters for the linear transform for the generation of random values (a.r + b) (line 4).
The input distribution inputDistribution { (x, pdf(x)} is generated for 5000 data points (lines 7 - 13).
Next the bootstrap is created with the appropriate number of replicates, numReplicates, the mean of the input dataset as the statistical function s, the input distribution and the generic random number generator of Scala library, as arguments (lines 16 -20).
Let's plot the distribution the input dataset generated from a normal density function.

val (meanNormal, errorNormal) = bootstrap(
    new NormalDistribution, 
    new scala.util.Random, 
    (5.0, 2.5)
  )

Normally distributed dataset
The first graph plots the distribution of the input dataset using the Normal distribution.


The second graph illustrates the distribution (histogram) of the replicates s - mean.


The bootstrap replicates s(x) are also normally distributed. The mean value for the bootstrap replicates is 0.1978 and the error is 0.001691

Dataset with a log normal distribution
We repeat the same process for the lognormal distribution. This time around the dataset to sample from follows a log-normal distribution.

val (meanLogNormal, errorLogNormal) = bootstrap(
    new LogNormalDistribution, 
    new scala.util.Random, 
    (2.0, 0.0)
  )



Although the original dataset used for generated the bootstrap samples is normally distribured, the bootstrap replicates s(x) are normally distributed. The mean for the bootstrap replicates is 0.3801 and the error is 0.002937

The error for the bootstrap resampling from a log normal distribution is twice as much as the error related to the normal distribution
The results is not be a surprise: The bootstrap replicates follow a Normal distribution which matches closely the original dataset created using the same probability density function.

References
Programming in Scala - 3rd edition M Odersky, L. Spoon, B. Venners - Artima - 2016
Elements of Statistics Learning: Data mining, Inference and Prediction - 7.11 Bootstrap method Springer - 2001

Thursday, April 28, 2016

Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain in Scala

This post illustrates the Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain (NDCG) and it implementation in Scala.
Numerous real-life applications of machine learning require the prediction the most relevant ranking of items to optimize an outcome. For instance

  • Evaluate and prioritize counter-measures to cyber-attach
  • Ranks symptoms in a clinical trial
  • Extract documents relevant to a given topic from a corpus
The Discounted Cumulative Gain (DCG) and its normalized counter part, Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain (NDCG) is a metric original applied in textual information retrieval and extended to other domains.

Discounted Cumulative Gain
Let's dive into the mathematical formalism for the Discounted Cumulative Gain. 

For a indexed target values tj as illustrated in the diagram above, the discounted cumulative gain is computed as
\[DCG=\sum_{j=1}^{n}\frac{2^{t_{j}}-1}{log_{2}(j+1)}\] The objective is to compare any given list of ranked/sorted item with a benchmark which represent the optimum ranking (ranking with the highest DCG value).
\[p(ranking|IDCG)=\frac{log(2)}{IDCG}\sum_{j=0}^{n}\frac{2^{t_{j}}-1}{log(j+1)}\]

Scala implementation
The implementation of the computation of NDCG in Scala is quite simple, indeed. Given a ranked list of items. The three steps are
  • Compute the IDCG (or normalization factor)from the list
  • Compute the DCG for the list
  • Compute the NDCG = DCG/IDCF
First let's consider list of items, of type T to rank. The method ranking to sort a sample of sorted items is provided as an implicit function. The constructor for NDCG has a single argument: the sample of ranking:
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class NDCG[T](
   firstSample: Seq[T])
   (implicit ranking: T => Int) {
  import NDCG._

  val iDCG: Double = normalize

  def score: Double = score(initialSample)

  private def dcg(samples: Seq[T]): Double =
    samples.zipWithIndex.aggregate(0.0)(
      (s, samplej) => s + compute(samplej._2 + 1, ranking(samplej._1))
      , _ + _)


  private def normalize: Double = {
    val sorted = initialSample.zipWithIndex.sortBy{
      case (sample, n) => -ranking(sample)
    }.map( _._1)
    dcg(sorted)
  }
}

The Ideal Discounted Cumulative Gain, iDCG is compute through the normalize method (line 6). iDCG (normalization factor) is computed by first sorting the items of type T by their value in decreasing order (line 16), then scoring this re-sorted list using the dcg method (line 17).
The computation of the Discounted Cumulative Gain by the method dcg (line 10) is a direct application of the formula described in the previous chapter.
Note: The logarithm function uses a base 2. It is computed as natural log(x)/natural log (2)
Let's now consider a list of items of type Item defined as follows:
case class Item(id: String, x: Double, rank: Int)

The list of items, itemsList is implicitly ranked through the last attribute, rank.

val itemsList = Seq[Item](
  Item("1", 3.4, 4), Item("2", 1.4, 3),
  Item("3", -0.7, 5), Item("4", 5.2, 2), 
  Item("5", 1.4, 1))

implicit val ranking = (item: Item) => item.rank

It is time to compute the NDCG coefficient for the list of items, by invoking the score method.

val nDCG = new NDCG[Item](itemsList)

println(s"IDCG = ${nDCG.iDCG}")    //45.64
println(s"Score = ${nDCG.score}")  // 0.801

The ideal discounted cumulative gain, iDCG is 45.6: It is the optimum ranking for this list of time. The first sample score a probability of 0.8
Note
The DCG of subsequent samples can be computed using the same iDCG value from the same instance of NDCG.

def score(samples: Seq[T]): Double =
  if( samples.size != initialSample.size) 0.0 
  else dcg(samples)/iDCG

References

Friday, April 15, 2016

Managing Spark context in ScalaTest

This post describes a methodology to manage the Spark context while testing you application using ScalaTest

Debugging Apache Spark application using ScalaTest seems quite simple when dealing with a single test:
  • Specify your Spark context configuration SparkConf
  • Create the Spark context
  • Add test code related to your application
  • Clean up resources (Spark context, Akka context, File handles...
However, there are cases when you may need to create and close the spark context used across multiple test or on a subset of the tests. The challenge is to make sure that the Spark context is actually close when it is no longer needed.
This post introduces two basic ScalaTest methods beforeAll and afterAll of the trait BeforeAndAfterAll to manage the context lifecyle of your test application.

Wrapping the Spark context
The objective is to create a small framework that create or retrieve an existing Spark context before executing a test and closing it after the test is completed, independently of the status of the test.
The initialization of the Spark context consist of specifying the configuration for the sequence of tests. Some of these parameters can be dynamically defined through a simple parameterization. The context is created only if it is not already defined within the scope of the test using the getOrCreate method.
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trait SparkContextWrapper {
  protected[this] var sc: SparkContext = _

  def getContext: SparkContext = {
    val conf = new SparkConf().setAppName(s"Test-App")
      .set("spark.executor.instances", "2")
      .set("spark.driver.memory", "2g")
      .set("spark.executor.memory", "2g")
      .set("spark.executor.cores", "2")
      .set("spark.serializer", 
              "org.apache.spark.serializer.KryoSerializer")
      .set("spark.rdd.compress", "true")
      .set("spark.shuffle.spill", "true")
      .set("spark.shuffle.spill.compress", "true")
      .set("spark.shuffle.memoryFraction", "0.4")
      .set("spark.io.compression.codec", "snappy")
      .set("spark.network.timeout", "600")

    sc = SparkContext.getOrCreate(conf.setMaster("local[4]"))
    sc.setLogLevel("ERROR")
    sc
  }

  def close: Unit = {
    if (sc != null) sc.stop
  }
}

The solution is to let ScalaTest method manage the lifecycle of the Spark context for testing.
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trait SparkContextForTesting 
     extends SparkContextWrapper with BeforeAndAfterAll { 
  self: Suite =>

  override def beforeAll: Unit = {
    getContext
    super.beforeAll
  }

  override def afterAll: Unit = {
    close
    super.afterAll
  }
}

Note: The BeforeAndAfterAll trait can only be sub-classed by a test suite inheriting the Suite trait. The method beforeAll (line: 5) is automatically called before the first test of your test suite and the method afterAll (line 10)is called after your last test is completed, whether those tests succeeded or not

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class MyTest 
  extends FlatSpec 
    with Matchers 
      with SparkContextForTesting {

 val x: Int = -4
 it should "My first test" in {
   val sqlContext = new SQLContext(sc) 
   // ....
 }
   // ... other tests

 it should "My last test" in {
   // clean up after it completes
 }
}

As they say at the end of the movie, "That's all folks!"

Reference
ScalaTest User Guide

Monday, March 7, 2016

Weighting logistic loss for imbalanced dataset in Spark

How to apply corrective weight for the training of a logistic regression with imbalanced dataset using Apache Spark MLlib?
Some applications such as spam or online targeting have an imbalanced dataset. The number of observations associated to one label is very small (minority class) compared to the number of observations associated to the other labels.

Overview
Let's consider the case of intrusion detection system that identifies an cyber attack through a Virtual Private Network (VPN) in an entreprise. The objective is to classify every session based on one or several TCP connections as potentially harmful intrusion or normal transaction knowing that a very small fraction of attempt to connect and authenticate are actual deliberate attacks (less than 1 for each million of connections).
There are few points to consider:
  • The number of reported attack is very likely very small (< 10). Therefore, the very small set of labeled security breach is plagued with high variance
  • A very large and expensive labeling operation is required, if even available, to generate a fairly stable negative class (security breach)
  • The predictor can be extremely accurate (as measured by F1-score, Area under the ROC curve or PR curve) by always classifying any new attempt to connect to the VPN as harmless. In the case of 1 reported attack per 1 million VPN session, the prediction would be accurate 99.999% of the time.

There are several approaches to address the problem of imbalanced training and validation sets. These list of the most common known techniques onclude
  • Sub-sampling the majority class (i.e. harmless VPN sessions): It reduces the number of labels for the normal sessions while preserving the labeled reported attacks.
  • Over-sampling the minority class: This technique generates synthetic sampling using bootstrapped samples based on k Nearest Neighbors algorithm
  • Application of weights differential to the logistic loss used in the training of the model
This post focuses on the third option or re-balancing (weighting) of the logistic loss. The implementation of this technique is specific to Apache Spark and more specifically the ML implementation of the Logistic Regression (not MLlib)that leverages data frames.
It is assumed the reader is somewhat familiar the Apache Spark, data frame and its machine learning module MLlib.

Weighting the logistic loss
Let's consider the logistic loss commonly used in training a binary model f with feature x and label y: \[logLoss = - \sum_{i=0}^{n-1}[y_i .log(f(x_i)) + (1 - y_i) .log(1 - f(x_i))]\] The first component of the loss function is related to the minority observations (security breach through a VPN: label = 1) while the a second component represents the loss related to the majority observation (harmless VPN sessions: label = 0)
Let's consider the ratio, r of number of observations related to the majority label over the total number of observations: \[r = \frac{ i: (y_i = 1)}{i : y_i}\] The logistic loss can be then rebalanced as \[logloss = -\sum_{i=0}^{n-1} [r.y_i.log(f(x_i)) + (1-r).(1-y_i).log(f(x_i))]\] The next step is to implement the weighting of the binomial logistic regression classifier using Apache Spark.

Weighting the logistic loss
Apache Spark is a open source framework for in-memory processing of large datasets (think as Hadoop on steroids). Apache Spark framework contains a machine learning module known as MLlib. The objective is to modify/override the train method of the LogisticRegression.
One simple option is to sub-class LogisticRegression class in the mllib/ml package. However the logistic loss is actually computed in the private class LogisticAggregatorb which cannot be overridden.
However if you browse through the ml.classification.LogisticRegression.train Scala code, you notice that the class Instance that encapsulates labeled data for the computation of the loss and the gradient of loss has three parameters
  • label: Double
  • feature: linalg.Vector
  • weight: Double

The plan is to use this 3rd parameter weight as the balancing weight ratio r. This is simply accomplished by adding an extra column weightCol to the input data frame dataset and define its value as
  • balancingRatio r for label = 1
  • 1 - balancingRatio (1 - r) for label = 0
A simple implementation of the Weighted Logistic Regression using Apache Spark MLlib implementation of the Logistic Regression :

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final val BalancingWeightColumnName: String = "weightCol"
final val BalanceRatioBounds = (0.001, 0.999)
final val ImportanceWeightNormalization = 2.0

class WeightedLogisticRegression(balanceRatio: Double = 0.5) 
   extends LogisticRegression(UUID.randomUUID.toString) 
      with Logging {

  this.setWeightCol(BalancingWeightColumnName)

  private[this] val balancingRatio = 
    if (balanceRatio < BalanceRatioBounds._1) 
       BalanceRatioBounds._1
    else if (balanceRatio > BalanceRatioBounds._2) 
       BalanceRatioBounds._2
    else
       balanceRatio

  override protected def train(dataset: DataFrame): 
      LogisticRegressionModel = {
    val newDataset = dataset.withColumn("weightCol", lit(0.0))

    val weightedDataset: RDD[Row] = dataset.map(row => {
      val w = if (row(0) == 1.0) balancingRatio 
         else 1.0 - balancingRatio
      Row(row.getAs[Double](0), row.getAs[Vector](1), 
           ImportanceWeightNormalization * w)
    })

    val weightedDataFrame = dataset.sqlContext
        .createDataFrame(weightedDataset, newDataset.schema)
    super.train(weightedDataFrame)
  }
}

Notes
  • The balancing ratio has to be normalized by a factor ImportanceWeightNormalization = 2: The factor is require to produce a weight of 1 for both the majority and minority classes from a fully balanced ratio of 0.5.
  • The actual balancing ratio needs to be constrained within an acceptable range BalanceRatioBounds to prevent for the minority class to have an outsize influence of the weights of the logistic regression model. In the extreme case, there may not even be a single observation in the minority class (security breach through the VPN). These minimum and maximum values are highly dependent on the type of application.

Here is an example of application of the WeightedLogisticRegression on a training data frame labeledData. The number of data points (or observations) associated to label = 1 is extracted through a simple filter.

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val numPositives = trainingDF.filter("label == 1.0").count
val datasetSize = labeledData.count
val balanceRatio = (datasetSize- numPositives).toDouble/datasetSize

val lr = new WeightedLogisticRegression(balanceRatio)
          .setMaxIter(20)
          .setElasticNetParam(0)
          .setFitIntercept(true)
          .setTol(1E-6)
          .setRegParam(1E-2)

val model = lr.fit(trainingDF)

One simple validation of this implementation of the weighted logistic regression on Apache Spark is to verify that the weights of the logistic regression model generated with the WeightedLogisticRegression with a balancing ratio of 0.5 are very similar to the weights generated by the logistic regression model of the Apache Spark MLlib (ml.classification.LogisticRegressionModel)

Note: This implementation relies on Apache Spark 1.6.0. The latest implementation of the Logistic Regression in beta release of Apache Spark 2.0 does not allow to override the LogisticRegression outside the scope of Apache Spark MLlib.

References

Thursday, February 4, 2016

Newton-Raphson revisited

This post presents two variants of the computation of the root of a function, implemented in Scala

The Newton-Raphson is a well-know technique to compute the root of a function, f(x) = 0 or the minimum/maximum of a function using its derivative f'(x) = 0.
The simplicity of the Newton-Raphson method, in term of concept as well as implementation makes it a very popular solution. We will look into two different implementation in Scala and conclude the post by evaluation the relative benefits and limitations of the Newton-Raphson.

First implementation
Let's dive into the computation of the root x of a function f. A function is defined by its Taylor series of derivatives as follow:
\[f(s)=\sum_{0}^{\infty }\frac{f^{(n)}(x)}{n!}(s-x)^{n}\] In case of the root f(s), the equation becomes
\[0=f(x)+f'(x)(x-s)+O((x-s)^{2}f"(s))\] resulting to
\[x_{n+1}=x_{n}- \frac{f(x_{n})}{f'(x_{n})}\]

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final class NewtonRaphson(
  f:   Double => Double,
  df:  Double => Double,
  dff: Option[Double => Double] = None
) {
  final val EPS = 0.01

  @scala.annotation.tailrec
  def root(z: Double): Double = dff.map(_dff => {
    val nextX = x - f(x) / df(x)
    if (Math.abs(nextX - x) < EPS) nextX 
    else root(nextX)
  }
}

The construtor (lines 2 to 4) takes 3 arguments:
  • Function which root is to be computed
  • First order derivative
  • Optional second order derivative that is not used in this first implementation
The formula is implemented by the method root (lines 9 to 12).Let's apply the root method to a concrete example, with function f and its derivative ff:

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val f = (x: Double) => Math.pow(x, 5.0) - 2.0*x
val ff = (x: Double) => 5.0*Math.pow(x,4.0) -2.0
 
val nr1 = new NewtonRaphson(f, ff)
val z1 = nr1.root(7.9)

So far so good. However it is assumed that the function has a single root, or in the case of a maximum/minimum, its derivative has single root, at least in the vicinity of the initial data point. What about computing the root of a function which may have no or several root?
Let's look at the following function g and its derivate gg

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val g = (x: Double) => Math.exp(0.5 * x)
val gg = (x: Double) => 0.5 * g(x)

val nr3 = new NewtonRaphson(g, gg)

The call to the Newton-Raphson method nr5 will diverge. In this particular case, the computation generates a Double.NaN, at each itertion.
There are several options to guarantee that the method will properly exit in the case no root exists. Let's look at one solution that leverages on the second derivative.

Second derivative to the rescue
We need to go back to basics: in its simplest form, the Newton-Raphson does not take into account the derivative of order higher than 1. The second order derivative, f" can be used as rough approximation of the error on the approximation of the root. The error san be evaluated at each iteration against a convergence criteria EPS.
\[\Delta \varepsilon = \varepsilon _{n+1}- \varepsilon _{n} \sim \frac{f'(x_{n})}{f"(x_{n})} < EPS\] \[x_{n+1}=x_{n}-\frac{f(x_{n})}{f'(x_{n})}(1 + \Delta \varepsilon)\] The approximation of the error is also used to validate whether the algorithm converges toward a solution (root) or starts to diverge. Let's implement this variation of the Newton-Raphson using the second order derivative as a convergence criteria.

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@scala.annotation.tailrec
def root(z: Double): Double = dff.map(_dff => {

  @scala.annotation.tailrec
  def nr2ndOrder(xe: (Double, Double)): (Double, Double) = {
    val x = xe._1
    val eps = xe._2
      
    val nextEps = Math.abs(df(x) / _dff(x))
    val nextX = (x - f(x) *(1.0 + nextEps)/df(x))

    // rules to exit recursion
    if (eps > 0.0 && nextEps >= eps)
      (-1.0, -1.0)
    else if (Math.abs(nextEps - eps) < EPS) 
      (nextX, nextEps)
     else 
       nr2ndOrder((nextX, nextEps))
  }
  
  nr2ndOrder((z, 0.0))._1
}).getOrElse(DIVERGE)

Once again, the computation of the root is implemented as an efficient tail recursion defined in the method nr2ndOrder (line 5)
The convergence criteria is implemented as follow:
  • if error, eps increases, exit the recursion => Diverge (lines 13 and 22)
  • if eps decreases with a value within the convergence criteria => Converged (line 15)
  • if eps decreases with a value higher than the convergence criteria => Recurse (line 18)


Summary
Let's compare the convergence of the simplest Newton-Raphson method with the convergence its variant using the 2nd order derivative, using the function f defined in the first paragraph.


Clearly, the adaptive step size using the second order derivative speeds up the convergence toward the root of the function f. The selection of the appropriate method comes down to the trade-off between the overhead of the computation of the second derivative and the larger number of iterations or recursions required to find the root within a predefined convergence criteria.

References
Programming in Scala 2nd Edition M. Odersky, L. Spoon, B. Venners - Artima - 2012
The Newton-Raphson method

Tuesday, January 5, 2016

Simple class versioning in Scala

This post describes a very simple library versioning scheme using a class loader and jar file identified by its URL.
Versioning is a common challenge in commercial software development. The most common technique to support multiple versions of a library, executable or framework, in Java or Scala relies on the class loader.
A library can be easily versioned by creating multiple jar files, one for each version.

Simple implementation
Let's select a simple case for each a library is self-contained in a jar file with two versions
  • ArrayIndex1.jar
  • ArrayIndex2.jar

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import java.net.{URL, URLClassLoader}
import java.io.File
import java.lang.reflect.Method

val cl1 = new URLClassLoader( 
  Array[URL](new File("ArrayIndex1.jar").toURL),   
  Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader()
)
val cl2 = new URLClassLoader( 
  Array[URL](new File("ArrayIndex2.jar").toURL),  
  Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader()
)
  
val compatibleClass: Class[_] = 
  if( version > 0.9) 
    cl1.loadClass("ArrayIndex") 
  else 
    cl2.loadClass("ArrayIndex")

val obj = compatibleClass.newInstance
val methods = compatibleClass.getMethods
println(s"${methods.map( _.getName).mkString(",")}")

The first step consists of loading the two versions of the library through their URL by converting each jar file names to a URL. This feat is accomplished by instantiating the class loaders: In this particular case, the class loader is undefined by its URL with the type URLClassLoader (line 5 & 9). The jar files are loaded within the current thread (line 7 & 11): A more efficient approach would consists of creating a future to load the classes asynchronously.
The class to be used in this case depends on the variable version (line 15). Once the appropriate class is loaded, its instance and method are ready available to the client be invoked.